Eye movement during new page operation differed between E-books and paper books.
 E-booksf new page operation is almost the same in all subjects, but the new page operation for paper books differs according to the subjectfs posture and method of holding paper books. The surface of a paper book is not always flat; almost all subjects bent the paper books while reading. In particular, when a subject is using spread-page paper books, paper books are often bent. On the other hand, a reader of E-books can turn the page by a very easy operation such as swipe or touch. Large hand motions are unnecessary. For this reason, we consider that the difference between E-book display style and paper book display style had a stronger relationship with eye movement while page turning than ease of operation.
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We have investigated typical eye movement when reading E-books, and compared this behavior to the reading of paper books. We performed two experiments, the first on E-book devices which could display only single pages, and the second, on E-book devices which could display two-page spreads. From the two kinds of experimental results, there was a difference between E-books and paper books for new page operation. The average page-turning times for E-books were shorter than that for paper books, and the average displacement length of E-books was shorter than that for paper books.  Based on the two types of experiment result, we conclude that eyes moved regularly for E-books and that eye movement for paper books depended on how the readers held the book and turned the pages.
Our results suggest that it will be necessary to investigate reading behavior of subjects reading paper books to improve the attractiveness of E-books.

Eye Movement while Reading E-books

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In recent years, smart phones and tablet devices which can handle various kinds of information simultaneously are spreading. Likewise, the use of E-books has been increasing.The character data and accompanying illustrations of paper media are shifting to digital data that can be viewed on smart phones and tablet devices. Although the history of digital devices is short compared with that of paper books, they have various merits: a lot of books can be saved and carried in one device, we can purchase books that we want to read immediately, and so on. However, it is hard to say that E-books have overtaken paper books in popularity, and there are some experiential differences when reading E-books and paper books.
In this research, we compared eye movement in the reading of E-books and paper books. We prepared two types of E-books, one displayed as a single page, the other as a two-page spread.


Reference:Hideaki Takahira, Kei Kikuchi, Mitsuho Yamada, Eye Movement while Reading E-books, SID 2014, P-40



Left figure shows the eye movement (angular displacement of horizontal and vertical direction) when the eyes move to the next page of an E-book. Horizontal eye movement and vertical eye movement occur only once by saccade. These movements occurred in both type of E-books, one displayed as a single page, the other as a two-page spread that were used in the experiment.
Middle figure shows the eye movement (angular displacement of horizontal and vertical direction) when subjects moved eyes to the next page of a paper book. The subject moved the page toward the right-hand side after flipping the page with the left finger. Horizontal eye movement occurred slowly. The last line of the page was short, and since it had ended in the upper part of the line, the vertical eye movement was small.
Left figure shows another result of the eye movement (angular displacement of horizontal and vertical direction) when a subject moved his eyes to the next page of a paper book. After completing a page the subject represented in the left figure first bent the book and brought pages on either side closer and then returned the book to the state where the pages on either side were opened flat. Horizontal eye movement and vertical eye movement occurred only once by saccade.



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